I have long been interested in how assumptions, inferences, generalizations, and the like often become habits of thought and justifications for convictions and conduct, no matter how distorted or irrational they may come to seem. Over the years, my research on attitude and impression formation, persuasion and opinion change, rumor and gossip, interpersonal acumen, and sources of unintended factors known as artifacts has also been a constant reminder of the difficulties and subtleties of applying the scientific method to behavioral studies. It has taught me to be mindful of the contexts in which particular empirical observations are situated and of sociotemporal factors that are not static, but in continual flux. In the case of artifacts, as William J. McGuire put it, today's artifact may become tomorrow's independent variable; the same conditions discounted as nuisance variables at one time may later be exploited as variables of interest in their own right.
Methodological, statistical, and ethical practices when generating, describing, exploring, and drawing conclusions and generalizations from data are long-time interests. My earliest study of judgment biases was conducted when I was a freshly minted Ph.D. working in Washington, DC. The study had to do with testing an apparatus that I helped to develop to record continuous Likert-type responses. I was inspired by the Lazarsfeld-Stanton Program Analyzer, which recorded continuous dichotomous responses (this was back in the days before personal computers were on every researcher's desk). Focused on the 1960 Kennedy-Nixon presidential debates, the study explored some biasing effects in evaluations of the debate. I wrote up the results when I came to Boston University in 1967 to teach in a new master's degree program in communication research. I had also become interested in volunteer bias, and I believe it was Gordon W. RusselI who introduced Bob Rosenthal and me to one another at an EPA meeting in Atlantic City. Bob, then a Lecturer on Clinical Psychology at Harvard, had started a program of research on experimenter effects in the subject-experimenter interaction, but of particular interest to me was that he was also writing a paper on the volunteer subject. I asked him if he might be interested in collaborating on an empirical study of volunteer subjects, and to my good fortune he accepted. Additional work on artifacts was percolating in other labs and settings, and in 1969 some of that research and thought was brought together in our edited book, Artifact in Behavioral Research, followed several years later by our book length monograph on the volunteer subject and a paperback primer on research methods (which eventually evolved into our graduate- and undergraduate-level texts). Since then, my old friend and I have collaborated on articles, chapters, and a baker's dozen additional books in the area of research methodology and data analysis.
Since retiring from the riveting poignancy of academic life, I have kept busy reading, writing, and ruminating. I have been exploring ways of providing free open access to several books for which my coauthors and I have received the rights from the publishers. By clicking on the FILES tab above, it is possible to freely access full-text PDF copies of five books: Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis (3rd edition, coauthored with Bob Rosenthal); People Studying People: Artifacts and Ethics in Behavioral Research (coauthored with Bob Rosenthal); Writing Papers in Psychology: Proposals, Research Papers, Literature Reviews, Poster Presentations and Concise Reports (9th edition, coauthored with Mimi Rosnow); Rumor and Gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay (coauthored with Gary Alan Fine); and Paradigms in Transition: The Methodology of Social Inquiry. After opening the FILES tab, click on a highlighted title, and then simply click on View/Download.
- Applied Social Psychology
- Attitudes and Beliefs
- Interpersonal Processes
- Research Methods, Assessment
- Social Cognition
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Paradigms in Transition: The Methodology of Social Inquiry.
- Linked publication: 1981. Paradigms in transition: The methodology of social inquiry (R. L. Rosnow). Oxford University Press. (Copyright reverted to Rosnow.)
People Studying People: Artifacts and Ethics in Behavioral Research
- Linked publication: 1997. People studying people: Artifacts and ethics in behavioral research (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). W. H. Freeman. (Copyright reverted to Rosnow and Rosenthal.)
- Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis (3rd edition)
- Rumor and Gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay
- Writing Papers in Psychology (9th edition)
1976. Rumor and gossip: The social psychology of hearsay (R. L. Rosnow & G. A. Fine). Elsevier. (Copyright reverted to Rosnow and Fine.)
- Linked other: Rumor and Gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay
- 1981. Paradigms in transition: The methodology of social inquiry (R. L. Rosnow). Oxford University Press. (Copyright reverted to Rosnow.)
- 1985. Contrast analysis: Focused comparisons in the analysis of variance (R. Rosenthal & R. L. Rosnow). Cambridge University Press.
- 1986. Contextualism and understanding in behavioral science: Implications for research and theory (R. L. Rosnow & M. Georgoudi, Eds.). Praeger. (Contributors included: I. Altman, T. O. Blank, R. A. Dixon, J. S. Efran, M. Georgoudi, G. Gerbner, C. K. Germer, R. E. Lana, J. V. Lerner, R. M. Lerner, M. D. Lukens, W. J. McGuire, G. E. McKechnie, J. Meyowitz, J. G. Morawski, T. R. Sarbin, J. Shotter, and J. Veroff.)
- 1997. People studying people: Artifacts and ethics in behavioral research (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). W. H. Freeman. (Copyright reverted to Rosnow and Rosenthal.)
- 2000. Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach (R. Rosenthal, R. L. Rosnow, & D. B. Rubin). Cambridge University Press.
- 2008. Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis, 3rd edition (R. Rosenthal & R. L. Rosnow). McGraw-Hill. (Copyright reverted to Rosenthal and Rosnow.)
- 2009. Artifacts in behavioral research: A re-issue of Artifact in Behavioral Research, Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research, and The Volunteer Subject. (Foreword by A. E. Kazdin). Oxford University Press.
2012. Writing papers in psychology, 9th edition (R. L. Rosnow & Mimi Rosnow). Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. (Copyright reverted to R. L. Rosnow & M. Rosnow.)
- Linked other: Writing Papers in Psychology (9th edition)
- 2013. Beginning behavioral research: A conceptual primer, 7th edition (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). Pearson.
- 1989. Statistical procedures and the justification of knowledge in psychological science (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). American Psychologist, 44, 1276-1284.
- 1991. Inside rumor: A personal journey (R. L. Rosnow). American Psychologist, 46, 484-496.
- 1994. Intelligence and the epistemics of interpersonal acumen: Testing some implications of Gardner's theory (R. L. Rosnow, A. A. Skleder, M. E. Jaeger, & B. Rind). Intelligence, 19, 93-116.
- 1995. "Some things you learn aren't so": Cohen's paradox, Asch's paradigm, and the interpretation of interaction. Psychological Science (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal), 6, 3-9.
- 1996. Computing contrasts, effect sizes, and counternulls on other people's published data: General procedures for research consumers (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). Psychological Methods, 1, 331-340.
- 2000. Contrasts and correlations in effect-size estimation (R. L. Rosnow, R. Rosenthal, & D. B. Rubin). Psychological Science, 11, 446-453.
- 2003. Effect sizes for experimenting psychologists (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 57, pp. 221-237. Formula noted in Table 1 should read: 1/2*loge[(1+r)/(1-r)].
- 2009. Effect sizes: Why, when, and how to use them (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). Zeitschrift fur Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(1), 6-14.
- 2001. Rumor and gossip in interpersonal interaction and beyond: A social exchange perspective (R. L. Rosnow). In R. M. Kolwalski (Ed.), Behaving badly: Aversive behaviors in interpersonal relationships (pp. 203-232). American Psychological Association Press.
- 2013. Ethics and quantitative methods (R. L. Rosnow & R. Rosenthal). In T. D. Little (Ed.), Oxford handbook of quantitative methods (Vol. 1, pp. 31-53). Oxford University Press.
- Graduate Course in Data Analysis
- Graduate Course in Research Methods
- Graduate Seminar on Social Psychology
- Undergraduate Course in Research Methods
Ralph L. Rosnow
Radnor, Pennsylvania 19087